Croatia (/krˈʃə/ (listen), kroh-AY-shə; Croatian: Hrvatska, pronounced [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska, (listen)),[lower-alpha 5] is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe. It shares a coastline along the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Italy to the west and southwest. Croatia's capital and largest city, Zagreb, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, with twenty counties. The country spans an area of 56,594 square kilometres (21,851 square miles), hosting a population of nearly 3.9 million.

Republic of Croatia
Republika Hrvatska  (Croatian)[lower-alpha 1]
Anthem: "Lijepa naša domovino"
("Our Beautiful Homeland")
Location of Croatia (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (green)

and largest city
Zagreb[lower-alpha 2]
45°48′N 16°0′E
Official languagesCroatian[lower-alpha 3]
Writing systemLatin[lower-alpha 4]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Zoran Milanović
Andrej Plenković
Gordan Jandroković
Establishment history
9th century
 Joined Habsburg Monarchy
1 January 1527
 Secession from
29 October 1918
4 December 1918
25 June 1991[5]
12 November 1995
1 July 2013
56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) (124th)
 Water (%)
 2021 estimate
3,888,529[6] (128th)
 2011 census
73/km2 (189.1/sq mi) (109th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
$145 billion (80th)
 Per capita
$36,201 (49th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
$69.45 billion (81st)
 Per capita
$17,337 (66th)
Gini (2020) 28.3[8]
HDI (2019) 0.851[9]
very high · 43rd
CurrencyCroatian kuna (HRK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
Date formatdd. mm. yyyy. (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+385
ISO 3166 codeHR
Internet TLD

The Croats arrived in the 6th century. By the 9th century, they had organised the territory into two duchies. Croatia was first internationally recognised as independent on 7 June 879 during the reign of Duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, and in December 1918, merged into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of Croatia was incorporated into a Nazi installed puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia, which committed genocide against Serbs, Jews, and Roma. A resistance movement led to the creation of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, which after the war became a founding member and constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, and the War of Independence was fought over the subsequent four years.

Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Croatia is set to replace its national currency, the Croatian kuna with the Euro from 1 January 2023, officially becoming the 20th Eurozone member. An active participant in United Nations peacekeeping, Croatia contributed troops to the International Security Assistance Force and filled a nonpermanent seat on the United Nations Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.

Croatia is classified by the World Bank as a high-income economy and ranks high on the Human Development Index. Service, industrial sectors, and agriculture dominate the economy, respectively. Tourism is a significant source of revenue for the country, which is ranked among the 20 most popular tourist destinations. The state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides social security, universal health care, and tuition-free primary and secondary education while supporting culture through public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.

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