Colombia

Colombia (/kəˈlʌmbiə/ (listen), /-ˈlɒm-/;[12] Spanish: [koˈlombja] (listen)), officially the Republic of Colombia,[lower-alpha 1] is a country in South America with an insular region in North America. It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and Panama to the northwest. Colombia comprises 32 departments and the Capital District of Bogotá, the country's largest city. It covers an area of 1,141,748 square kilometers (440,831 sq mi), with a population of 50 million. Colombia's cultural heritage reflects influences by various Amerindian civilizations, European settlement, enslaved Africans, as well as immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Spanish is the nation's official language, besides which over 70 languages are spoken.

Republic of Colombia
República de Colombia  (Spanish)
Motto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish)
("Freedom and Order")
Anthem: Himno Nacional de la República de Colombia (Spanish)
("National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia")
Location of Colombia (dark green)

in South America (grey)

Capital
and largest city
Bogotá
4°35′N 74°4′W
Official languagesSpanish
Recognized regional languagesEnglish (in San Andrés and Providencia)
64 other languages [a]
Ethnic groups
(2018 census[1])
Religion
(2018)[2]
Demonym(s)Colombian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
 President
Gustavo Petro
Francia Márquez
LegislatureCongress
Senate
Chamber of Representatives
Independence from Spain
 Declared
20 July 1810
 Recognized
7 August 1819
 Last unitarisation
1886
 Secession of Panama
1903
4 July 1991
Area
 Total
1,141,748 km2 (440,831 sq mi) (25th)
 Water (%)
2.1 (as of 2015)[3]
Population
 2022 estimate
49,059,221[4] (29th)
 Density
42.23/km2 (109.4/sq mi) (173rd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$940.589 billion[5] (32nd)
 Per capita
$18,225[5] (84th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$351.281 billion[5] (43rd)
 Per capita
$6,806[5] (97th)
Gini (2020) 54.2[6]
high
HDI (2021) 0.752[7]
high · 88th
CurrencyColombian peso (COP)
Time zoneUTC−5[b] (COT)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+57
ISO 3166 codeCO
Internet TLD.co
  1. ^ Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) as the official language in all Colombian territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups – approximately 68 languages – each is also official in its own territory.[8] English is also official in the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.[9]
  2. ^ The official Colombian time[10] is controlled and coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology.[11]

Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since at least 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca, Quimbaya and Tairona. The Spanish landed first in La Guajira in 1499 and by the mid-16th century colonized parts of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santa Fé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from the Spanish Empire was achieved in 1819, with what is now Colombia emerging as the United Provinces of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858) and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903, leading to Colombia's present borders. Beginning in the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security, stability and rule of law, as well as unprecedented economic growth and development.[13][14]

Colombia is one of the world's seventeen megadiverse countries; it has the second-highest level of biodiversity in the world.[15] Its territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, highlands, grasslands and deserts. It is the only country in South America with coastlines and islands along both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Colombia is a member of major global and regional organizations including the UN, the WTO, the OECD, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance and the Andean Community. It is also a NATO Global Partner.[16] Its diversified economy is the third-largest in South America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects.[17][18]


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