Chile

Chile,[lower-alpha 1] officially the Republic of Chile,[lower-alpha 2] is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017.[5] It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory.[nb 2] The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

Republic of Chile
República de Chile (Spanish)
Motto: Por la razón o la fuerza
("By reason or by force")
Anthem: Himno Nacional de Chile
("National Anthem of Chile")
Chilean territory in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory in light green
Capital
and largest city
Santiagoa
33°26′S 70°40′W
National languageSpanish
Religion
(2022)[1]
  • 37.4% No religion
  • 0.5% Other
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
 President
Gabriel Boric
Álvaro Elizalde
Raúl Soto
Guillermo Silva
LegislatureNational Congress
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence 
from Spain
18 September 1810
 Declared
12 February 1818
 Recognized
25 April 1844
11 September 1980
Area
 Total
756,096.3[2] km2 (291,930.4 sq mi) (37th)
 Water (%)
2.1 (as of 2015)[3]
Population
 2022 estimate
18,430,408[4] (66th)
 2017 census
17,574,003[5] (64th)
 Density
24/km2 (62.2/sq mi) (198th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$568.319 billion[6] (45th)
 Per capita
$28,526[6] (64th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$317.594 billion[6] (45th)
 Per capita
$15,941[6] (62nd)
Gini (2021) 46[7]
high
HDI (2021) 0.855[8]
very high · 42nd
CurrencyChilean peso (CLP)
Time zoneUTC−4 and −6 (CLT and EASTc)
 Summer (DST)
UTC-3 and −5
April to September
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+56
ISO 3166 codeCL
Internet TLD.cl
  1. Legislature is based in Valparaíso.
  2. Includes Easter Island and Isla Salas y Gómez; does not include 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of territory claimed in Antarctica.

Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. In 1818, after declaring independence from Spain, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 20th century up to the 1970s Chile saw a process of democratization,[10][11] rapid population growth and urbanization[12] and increasing reliance on exports from copper mining for its economy.[13][14] During the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. This development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year right-wing military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing.[15] The regime ended in 1990 after a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled until 2010.

Chile is a developing country[16] with a high-income economy and ranks 42nd in the Human Development Index. It is among the most economically and socially stable nations in South America, leading Latin America in rankings of competitiveness, per capita income, globalization, state of peace, and economic freedom.[17] Chile also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development,[18] and has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. It is a founding member of the United Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Pacific Alliance, and joined the OECD in 2010.


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