Brunei

Brunei (/brˈn/ (listen) broo-NY, Malay: [brunaɪ] (listen)), formally Brunei Darussalam[lower-alpha 1] (Malay: Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi: نݢارا بروني دارالسلام, lit.'Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace'[12]), is a country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its South China Sea coast, it is completely surrounded by the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. Brunei is the only sovereign state entirely on Borneo; the remainder of the island is divided between Malaysia and Indonesia. As of 2020, its population was 460,345,[6] of whom about 100,000 live in the capital and largest city, Bandar Seri Begawan. The government is an absolute monarchy ruled by its Sultan, entitled the Yang di-Pertuan, and implements a combination of English common law and sharia law, as well as general Islamic practices.

Brunei Darussalam
  • Negara Brunei Darussalam (Malay)
  • نݢارا بروني دارالسلام (Jawi script)
Motto: 
  • الدائمون المحسنون بالهدى
  • Ad-dāʾimūna al-muḥsinūna bi-l-hudā
  • ("Sentiasa membuat kebajikan dengan petunjuk Allah")
  • "Always in service with God's guidance"
Anthem: 
Location of Brunei (green)

in the ASEAN (dark grey)   [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Bandar Seri Begawan
4°53.417′N 114°56.533′E
Official language
and national language
Malay[a][1]
Other languages
and local dialects[2][3]
Official scripts
Ethnic groups
(2021)[5]
Religion
(2016)[5]
Demonym(s)Bruneian
GovernmentUnitary Islamic absolute monarchy
Hassanal Bolkiah
 Crown Prince and Senior Minister
Al-Muhtadee Billah
LegislatureLegislative Council
Formation
c. 1368
15th–19th century
17 September 1888
1941–1945
1 January 1984
7 January 1984
Area
 Total
5,765 km2 (2,226 sq mi) (164th)
 Water (%)
8.6
Population
 2020 estimate
460,345[6] (175th)
 2016 census
417,256
 Density
72.11/km2 (186.8/sq mi) (134th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$33.389 billion[7] (125th)
 Per capita
$74,952[7] (5th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
 Total
$35.555 billion[7] (124th)
 Per capita
$79,816[7] (29th)
HDI (2019) 0.838[8]
very high · 47th
CurrencyBrunei dollar (BND)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Brunei Darussalam Time)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+673[c]
ISO 3166 codeBN
Internet TLD.bn[9]
  1. ^ Under Article 82 of the Constitution of Brunei, Malay is the official language.
  2. ^ Also 080 from East Malaysia.

At the peak of the Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah (reigned 1485–1528) is claimed to have had control over most regions of Borneo, including modern-day Sarawak and Sabah, as well as the Sulu Archipelago off the northeast tip of Borneo, and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo. Claims also state that they had control over Seludong (or the Kingdom of Maynila, where the modern-day Philippine capital Manila now stands) but Southeast Asian scholars believe this refers to a settlement Mount Selurong in Indonesia.[13] The maritime state of Brunei was visited by Spain's Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought against Spain in the 1578 Castilian War.

During the 19th century, the Bruneian Empire began to decline. The Sultanate ceded Sarawak (Kuching) to James Brooke and installed him as the White Rajah, and it ceded Sabah to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate and was assigned a British resident as colonial manager in 1906. After the Japanese occupation during World War II, in 1959 a new constitution was written. In 1962, a small armed rebellion against the monarchy was ended with the help of the British.

Brunei has been led by the Sultanate of Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah since 1967, and had gained its independence as a British protectorate on 1 January 1984. The country is an autocratic absolute monarchy. Economic growth during the 1990s and 2000s, with the GDP increasing 56% from 1999 to 2008, transformed Brunei into an industrialised country. It has developed wealth from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields. Brunei has the second-highest Human Development Index among the Southeast Asian nations, after Singapore, and is classified as a developed country. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brunei is ranked fifth in the world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity. The IMF estimated in 2011 that Brunei was one of two countries (the other being Libya) with a public debt at 0% of the national GDP.[14]


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