Bavaria (//; German: Bayern, pronounced [ˈbaɪ̯ɐn] (listen)), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern, [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈbaɪɐn] (listen); Bavarian: Freistoot Bayern), is a state in the south-east of Germany. With an area of 70,550.19 km2 (27,239.58 sq mi), Bavaria is the largest German state by land area, comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With over 13 million inhabitants, it is second in population only to North Rhine-Westphalia, but due to its large size its population density is below the German average. Bavaria's main cities are Munich (its capital and largest city and also the third largest city in Germany), Nuremberg, and Augsburg.
Free State of Bavaria
|Anthem: Bayernhymne (German)|
"Hymn of Bavaria"
|• Body||Landtag of Bavaria|
|• Minister-President||Markus Söder (CSU)|
|• Governing parties||CSU / FW|
|• Bundesrat votes||6 (of 69)|
|• Bundestag seats||117 (of 736)|
|• Total||70,550.19 km2 (27,239.58 sq mi)|
|• Density||186/km2 (480/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||DE-BY|
|GRP (nominal)||€633 billion (2019)|
|GRP per capita||€48,000 (2019)|
very high · 5th of 16
The history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became the Duchy of Bavaria (a stem duchy) in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. It was later incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom after 1806, joined the Prussian-led German Empire in 1871 while retaining its title of kingdom, and finally became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949.
Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the state's Catholic heritage and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, cuisine, architecture, festivals such as the Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism. The state also has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a wealthy German region.