Battle of Berlin

The Battle of Berlin, designated as the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was one of the last major offensives of the European theatre of World War II.[lower-alpha 6]

Battle of Berlin
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II

The Brandenburg Gate amid the ruins of Berlin, June 1945
Date16 April – 2 May 1945
(2 weeks and 2 days)
Location52°31′07″N 13°22′34″E

Soviet Union victory

  • Suicide of Adolf Hitler and deaths of other high-ranking Nazi officials
  • Unconditional surrender of the Berlin city garrison on 2 May
  • Capitulation of German forces still fighting the battle outside Berlin on 8/9 May, following the unconditional surrender of all German forces
  • End of World War II in Europe
Soviets occupy what would become East Germany during the Partition of Germany later that year.
Commanders and leaders

1st Belorussian Front:

2nd Belorussian Front:

1st Ukrainian Front:

Army Group Vistula:

Army Group Centre:

Berlin Defence Area:

Casualties and losses
  • Archival research
    (operational total)
  • 81,116 dead or missing[10]
  • 280,251 sick or wounded
  • 1,997 tanks and SPGs destroyed[11]
  • 2,108 artillery pieces
  • 917 aircraft[11]

After the Vistula–Oder Offensive of January–February 1945, the Red Army had temporarily halted on a line 60 km (37 mi) east of Berlin. On 9 March, Germany established its defence plan for the city with Operation Clausewitz. The first defensive preparations at the outskirts of Berlin were made on 20 March, under the newly appointed commander of Army Group Vistula, General Gotthard Heinrici.

When the Soviet offensive resumed on 16 April, two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. Before the main battle in Berlin commenced, the Red Army encircled the city after successful battles of the Seelow Heights and Halbe. On 20 April 1945, Hitler's birthday, the 1st Belorussian Front led by Marshal Georgy Zhukov, advancing from the east and north, started shelling Berlin's city centre, while Marshal Ivan Konev's 1st Ukrainian Front broke through Army Group Centre and advanced towards the southern suburbs of Berlin. On 23 April General Helmuth Weidling assumed command of the forces within Berlin. The garrison consisted of several depleted and disorganised Army and Waffen-SS divisions, along with poorly trained Volkssturm and Hitler Youth members. Over the course of the next week, the Red Army gradually took the entire city.

On 30 April, Hitler committed suicide (with several of his officials also dying by suicide shortly afterwards). The city's garrison surrendered on 2 May but fighting continued to the north-west, west, and south-west of the city until the end of the war in Europe on 8 May (9 May in the Soviet Union) as some German units fought westward so that they could surrender to the Western Allies rather than to the Soviets.[15]

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