Bank of England

The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the English Government's banker, and still one of the bankers for the Government of the United Kingdom, it is the world's eighth-oldest bank. It was privately owned by stockholders from its foundation in 1694 until it was nationalised in 1946 by the Attlee ministry.[4]

Governor and Company of the Bank of England

Seal of the Bank of England

The Bank of England building
HeadquartersThreadneedle Street, London, England, United Kingdom
Coordinates51.5142°N 0.0885°W / 51.5142; -0.0885
Established27 July 1694; 328 years ago (1694-07-27)
OwnershipOwned by HM Government through the Government Legal Department[1][2]
GovernorAndrew Bailey (since 2020)
Central bank ofUnited Kingdom
CurrencyPound sterling
GBP (ISO 4217)
Reserves101.59 billion USD[2]
Bank rate3.5%[3]

The bank became an independent public organisation in 1998, wholly owned by the Treasury Solicitor on behalf of the government,[1] with a mandate to support the economic policies of the government of the day,[5] but independence in maintaining price stability.[6]

The bank is one of eight banks authorised to issue banknotes in the United Kingdom, has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, and regulates the issue of banknotes by commercial banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.[7]

The bank's Monetary Policy Committee has devolved responsibility for managing monetary policy. The Treasury has reserve powers to give orders to the committee "if they are required in the public interest and by extreme economic circumstances", but Parliament must endorse such orders within 28 days.[8] In addition, the bank's Financial Policy Committee was set up in 2011 as a macroprudential regulator to oversee the UK's financial sector.

The bank's headquarters have been in London's main financial district, the City of London, on Threadneedle Street, since 1734. It is sometimes known as The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street a name taken from a satirical cartoon by James Gillray in 1797.[9] The road junction outside is known as Bank Junction.

As a regulator and central bank, the Bank of England has not offered consumer banking services for many years, but it still does manage some public-facing services, such as exchanging superseded bank notes.[10] Until 2016, the bank provided personal banking services as a privilege for employees.[11]

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