Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic,[lower-alpha 1] also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia or Armenia[lower-alpha 3] was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. It was established in December 1920, when the Soviets took over control of the short-lived First Republic of Armenia, and lasted until 1991. Historians sometimes refer to it as the Second Republic of Armenia, following the demise of the First Republic.

Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
  • Հայկական Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն (Armenian)
  • Армянская Советская Социалистическая Республика (Russian)
Flag (1952–1990)
State emblem
Motto: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացե՜ք (Armenian)
Proletarner bolor erkrneri, miac’ek’ (transliteration)
"Proletarians of all countries, unite!"
Anthem: Հայկական Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն օրհներգ
Haykakan Sovetakan Soc’ialistakan Hanrapetut’yun òrhnerg
"Anthem of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic"
Location of Armenia (red) within the Soviet Union
StatusSemi-independent state (1920–1922)
Part of the Transcaucasian SFSR (1922–1936)
Union republic (1936–1991)
De facto independent state (1990–1991)
and largest city
Official languagesArmenian (state language)
Russian (official)
Recognised languagesAzerbaijani · Kurdish
First Secretary 
 19201921 (first)
Gevork Alikhanyan
 1990 (last)[1]
Vladimir Movsisyan
Head of state 
 19201921 (first)
Sarkis Kasyan
 19901991 (last)
Levon Ter-Petrosyan
Head of government 
 19211922 (first)
Alexander Miasnikian
 1991 (last)
Gagik Harutyunyan
LegislatureSupreme Soviet
 Republic proclaimed
2 December 1920
 Becomes part of the Transcaucasian SFSR
30 December 1922
5 December 1936
20 February 1988
 Independence declared
23 August 1990
 Independence referendum
21 September 1991
 Independence completed
26 December 1991
HDI (1991)0.648
CurrencySoviet rouble (Rbl) (SUR)
Calling code7 885
Preceded by
Succeeded by
First Republic of Armenia
Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
Republic of Mountainous Armenia
Today part ofArmenia

As part of the Soviet Union, the Armenian SSR transformed from a largely agricultural hinterland to an important industrial production center, while its population almost quadrupled from around 880,000 in 1926 to 3.3 million in 1989 due to natural growth and large-scale influx of Armenian genocide survivors and their descendants. On 23 August 1990 the Declaration of Independence of Armenia was adopted. On 21 September 1991, the independence of the Republic of Armenia was confirmed in a referendum. It was recognized on 26 December 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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