Andorra

Andorra,[lower-alpha 7] officially the Principality of Andorra,[1][lower-alpha 8] is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France to the north and Spain to the south. Believed to have been created by Charlemagne, Andorra was ruled by the count of Urgell until 988, when it was transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell. The present principality was formed by a charter in 1278. It is headed by two co-princes: the Bishop of Urgell in Catalonia, Spain and the President of France. Its capital and largest city is Andorra la Vella.

Principality of Andorra[1]
Principat d'Andorra  (Catalan)[lower-alpha 1][1]
Motto: Virtus Unita Fortior (Latin)
"United virtue is stronger"[2]
Anthem: El Gran Carlemany  (Catalan)
"The Great Charlemagne"
Location of Andorra (centre of green circle)

in Europe (dark grey)   [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Andorra la Vella
42°30′N 1°31′E
Official languagesCatalan[1][lower-alpha 2]
Ethnic groups
(2017[3])
  • 48.8% Andorran
  • 25.1% Spanish
  • 12% Portuguese
  • 4.4% French
  • 9.7% others
Religion
Roman Catholicism[4][5]
Demonym(s)Andorran
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional elective diarchy
Xavier Espot Zamora
Roser Suñé Pascuet
LegislatureGeneral Council
Independence
 from Aragon
8 September 1278[6][7]
 from the French Empire
1814
2 February 1993
Area
 Total
467.63 km2 (180.55 sq mi) (178th)
 Water (%)
0.26 (121.4 ha)[lower-alpha 3]
Population
 2020 estimate
77,543[9] (203rd)
 Density
179.8/km2 (465.7/sq mi) (71st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
 Total
US$3.237 billion[10]
 Per capita
$42,035
Gini (2003)27.21[lower-alpha 4]
low
HDI (2019) 0.868[12]
very high · 36th
CurrencyEuro ()[lower-alpha 5] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+01 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+02 (CEST)
Driving sideright[13]
Calling code+376
ISO 3166 codeAD
Internet TLD.ad[lower-alpha 6]

Andorra is the sixth-smallest state in Europe, with an area of 468 square kilometres (181 sq mi) and a population of approximately 79,034.[15][16] The Andorran people are a Romance ethnic group of originally Catalan descent.[17] Andorra is the world's 16th-smallest country by land and 11th-smallest by population.[18] Its capital, Andorra la Vella, is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of 1,023 metres (3,356 feet) above sea level.[19] The official language is Catalan, but Spanish, Portuguese, and French are also commonly spoken.[3][20]

Tourism in Andorra sees an estimated 10.2 million visitors annually.[21] Andorra is not a member state of the European Union, but the euro is its official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993.[22] In 2013, Andorra had the highest life expectancy in the world at 81 years, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study;[23] in 2019, it had the 23rd-highest at 81.9 years, according to the United Nations Development Programme.[24]


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