American Civil War

The American Civil War (April 12, 1861 – May 26, 1865;[1][2] also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States between the United States (the Union[lower-alpha 6] or "the North") and the Confederacy (formed by states that voted to secede, or "the South").[lower-alpha 7] The central cause of the war was the status of slavery, especially the expansion of slavery into territories acquired as a result of the Louisiana Purchase and the Mexican–American War.[15] On the eve of the Civil War in 1860, four million of the 32 million Americans (~13%) were enslaved black people, almost all in the South.[16]

American Civil War

Clockwise from top:
DateApril 12, 1861 – May 26, 1865[lower-alpha 1]
(4 years and 44 days)[lower-alpha 2][1][2]
Result Union victory
 United States (Union)  Confederate States (Confederacy)
Commanders and leaders
Abraham Lincoln X
Ulysses S. Grant
and others...
Jefferson Davis
Robert E. Lee
and others...
2,200,000[lower-alpha 3]
698,000 (peak)[3][4]
750,000–1,000,000[lower-alpha 3][5]
360,000 (peak)[3][6]
Casualties and losses
  • 110,000+  / (DOW)
  • 230,000+ accident/disease deaths[7][8]
  • 25,000–30,000 died in Confederate prisons[3][7]

365,000+ total dead[9]

Total: 828,000+ casualties
  • 94,000+  / (DOW)[7]
  • 26,000–31,000 died in Union prisons[8]

290,000+ total dead

Total: 864,000+ casualties
  • 50,000 free civilians dead[10]
  • 80,000+ slaves dead (disease)[11]
  • Total: 616,222[12]–1,000,000+ dead[13][14]

The practice of slavery in the United States was one of the key political issues of the 19th century. Decades of political unrest over slavery led up to the Civil War. Disunion came after Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 United States presidential election on an anti-slavery expansion platform. An initial seven southern slave states declared their secession from the country to form the Confederacy. Confederate forces seized federal forts within territory they claimed. The last-minute Crittenden Compromise tried to avert conflict but failed; both sides prepared for war. Fighting broke out in April 1861 when the Confederate army began the Battle of Fort Sumter in South Carolina, just over a month after the first inauguration of Abraham Lincoln. The Confederacy grew to control at least a majority of territory in eleven states (out of the 34 U.S. states in February 1861), and asserted claims to two more. Both sides raised large volunteer and conscription armies. Four years of intense combat, mostly in the South, ensued.

During 1861–1862 in the war's Western Theater, the Union made significant permanent gainsthough in the war's Eastern Theater the conflict was inconclusive. On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves in states in rebellion to be free, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, the Union destroyed the Confederate's river navy by the summer of 1862, then much of its western armies, and seized New Orleans. The successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Confederate General Robert E. Lee's incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg. Western successes led to General Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions. This led to the fall of Atlanta in 1864 to Union General William Tecumseh Sherman, followed by his march to the sea. The last significant battles raged around the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, gateway to the Confederate capital of Richmond. The Confederates abandoned Richmond, and on April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant following the Battle of Appomattox Court House, setting in motion the end of the war.

A wave of Confederate surrenders followed. President Lincoln was assassinated just five days after Lee's surrender. As a practical matter, the war ended with the May 26 surrender of the Department of the Trans-Mississippi, but the conclusion of the American Civil War lacks a clean end date. Land forces continued surrendering past the May 26 surrender date until June 23. By the end of the war, much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed, especially its railroads. The Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, and four million enslaved black people were freed. The war-torn nation then entered the Reconstruction era in a partially successful attempt to rebuild the country and grant civil rights to freed slaves.

The Civil War is one of the most studied and written about episodes in the history of the United States. It remains the subject of cultural and historiographical debate. Of particular interest is the persisting myth of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy. The American Civil War was among the earliest to use industrial warfare. Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, the ironclad warship, and mass-produced weapons saw wide use. In total the war left between 620,000 and 750,000 soldiers dead, along with an undetermined number of civilian casualties. The Civil War remains the deadliest military conflict in American history.[lower-alpha 8] The technology and brutality of the Civil War foreshadowed the coming World Wars.

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