Albania (/ælˈbniə, ɔːl-/ (listen) a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri or Shqipëria),[lower-alpha 1] officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë),[lower-alpha 2] is a country in Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic and Ionian Seas within the Mediterranean Sea and shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo[lower-alpha 3] to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south. Tirana is its capital and largest city, followed by Durrës, Vlorë, and Shkodër.

Republic of Albania
Republika e Shqipërisë  (Albanian)
Motto: Ti Shqipëri, më jep nder,
më jep emrin Shqipëtar

"You Albania, give me honour,
you give me the name Albanian"
Anthem: Himni i Flamurit
"Hymn to the Flag"
and largest city
41°19′N 19°49′E
Official languagesAlbanian
Recognised minority languages
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Bajram Begaj
Edi Rama
Lindita Nikolla
Establishment history
February 1272
2 March 1444
 Proclamation of independence from the Ottoman Empire
28 November 1912
29 July 1913
31 January 1925
1 September 1928
11 January 1946
28 December 1976
 4th Republic of Albania
29 April 1991
28 November 1998
28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi) (140th)
 Water (%)
 January 2022 estimate
 2011 census
97/km2 (251.2/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
$49.827 billion[4]
 Per capita
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
$17.942 billion[4]
 Per capita
Gini (2019) 34.3[5]
HDI (2021) 0.796[6]
high · 67th
CurrencyLek (ALL)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+355
ISO 3166 codeAL

Albania displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological, and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi). It possesses significant diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea.

Albania has been inhabited by different civilisations over time, such as the Illyrians, Thracians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Venetians, and Ottomans. The Albanians established the autonomous Principality of Arbër in the 12th century. The Kingdom of Albania and Principality of Albania formed between the 13th and 14th centuries. Prior to the Ottoman conquest of Albania in the 15th century, the Albanian resistance to Ottoman expansion into Europe led by Skanderbeg won them acclaim over most of Europe. Albania remained under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries, during which many Albanians (known as Arnauts) attained high-ranking offices in the empire, especially in the Southern Balkans and Egypt. Between the 18th and 19th centuries, cultural developments, widely attributed to Albanians having gathered both spiritual and intellectual strength, conclusively led to the Albanian Renaissance. After the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars, the modern nation state of Albania declared independence in 1912.[8] In the 20th century, the Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy, which formed Greater Albania before becoming a protectorate of Nazi Germany.[9] Enver Hoxha formed the People's Socialist Republic of Albania after World War II, modeled under the terms of Hoxhaism. The Revolutions of 1991 concluded the fall of communism in Albania and eventually the establishment of the current Republic of Albania.

Albania is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic. It is a developing country, ranking 67th in the Human Development Index, with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the service sector, followed by manufacturing.[10] It went through a process of transition following the end of communism in 1990, from centralised planning to a market-based economy.[11][12][13] Albania provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.[6] Albania is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE, and OIC. It has been an official candidate for membership in the European Union since 2014. It is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean.

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