Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda (/əˌhʊərə ˈmæzdə/;[1] Avestan: 𐬀𐬵𐬎𐬭𐬋 𐬨𐬀𐬰𐬛𐬃, romanized: Ahurō Mazdā̊; Persian: آهورا مزدا, romanized: Āhurā Mazdā),[n 1] also known as Oromasdes, Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hoormazd, Hormazd, Hormaz and Hurmuz, is the creator deity in Zoroastrianism. He is the first and most frequently invoked spirit in the Yasna. The literal meaning of the word Ahura is "lord", and that of Mazda is "wisdom".

Ahura Mazda
Lord of Wisdom
Sassanid-era relief at Naqsh-e Rostam depicting Ahura Mazda presenting the diadem of sovereignty to Ardashir I
Native name𐬀𐬵𐬎𐬭𐬋 𐬨𐬀𐬰𐬛𐬃
RegionGreater Iran
Ethnic groupIranian peoples (Parsis, Iranis)
Adversary equivalentAhriman

The first notable invocation of Ahura Mazda occurred during the Achaemenid period (c.550–330 BC) with the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great. Until the reign of Artaxerxes II (c.405/404–358 BC), Ahura Mazda was worshipped and invoked alone in all extant royal inscriptions. With Artaxerxes II, Ahura Mazda was gathered in a triad with Mithra and Anahita. In the Achaemenid period, there are no known representations of Ahura Mazda at the royal court other than the custom for every emperor to have an empty chariot drawn by white horses to invite Ahura Mazda to accompany the Persian army on battles. Images of Ahura Mazda, however, were present from the 5th century BC but were stopped and replaced with stone-carved figures in the Sassanid period and later removed altogether through an iconoclastic movement supported by the Sassanid dynasty.

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