African diaspora

The African diaspora is the worldwide collection of communities descended from native Africans or people from Africa, predominantly in the Americas.[35] The term most commonly refers to the descendants of the West and Central Africans who were enslaved and shipped to the Americas via the Atlantic slave trade between the 16th and 19th centuries, with their largest populations in the United States, Brazil and Haiti.[36][37] However, the term can also be used to refer to the descendants of North Africans who immigrated to other parts of the world. Some[quantify] scholars identify "four circulatory phases" of this migration out of Africa.[38] The phrase African diaspora gradually entered common usage at the turn of the 21st century.[39] The term diaspora originates from the Greek διασπορά (diaspora, literally "scattering") which gained popularity in English in reference to the Jewish diaspora before being more broadly applied to other populations.[40]

African diaspora
Regions with significant populations
 United States46,936,733 (2020)[1]
 Brazil14,517,961 (2010)[2][3]
 Colombia4,671,160 including multiracial[5]
 FranceApproximately 3.3–5.5 million[7]
 Saudi Arabia3,370,000[8]
 United Kingdom1,904,684[10]
 Spain1,191,378, 79% being North African[13]
 Dominican Republic1,138,471[14][15]
 Puerto Rico1,000,000+ [19]
 Germanyc. 1,000,000[20]
 Peru828,841 (2017)[21]
 Trinidad and Tobago452,536[22]
 Russia50,000[34] (est. 2009)
Lingua franca: English (American and Caribbean), French (Canadian, Haitian), Haitian Creole, Spanish, Portuguese, Papiamento and Dutch
Christianity, Islam, Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions

Less commonly, the term has been used in scholarship to refer to more recent emigration from sub-Saharan Africa.[41] The African Union (AU) defines the African diaspora as consisting: "of people of native African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union".[42] Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union".[43]

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